The Seternoclavicular Sprain

The shoulder complex is an extremely complicated region of the body.There are four major articulations associated with the shoulder complex: the sternoclavicular joint, the acromioclavicular joint, the coracoclavicular joint, and the glenohumeral joint.This paper will concentrate on the sternoclavicular joint, which is the main axis of rotation for the movements of the clavicle and scapula.The sternoclavicular joint is one of the least commonly injured joints in the body.However, it is possible to sprain or even dislocate this joint.The etiology (mechanism/cause of injury), pathology (damage caused by the injury), common signs and symptoms, and the management and rehabilitation of sternoclavicular sprains will all be discussed.
A brief anatomy of the sternoclavicular joint will help in the understanding of the joint sprain.The clavicle articulates with the manubrium of the sternum to form the sternoclavicular joint, the only direct connection between the upper extremity and the trunk.The sternal articulating surface is larger than the sternum, causing the clavicle to rise much higher than the sternum.A fibrocartilaginous disk is interposed between the two articulating surfaces.It functions as a shock absorber against the medial forces and also helps to prevent any displacement upward.The articular disk is placed so that the clavicle moves on the disk, and the disk, in turn, moves separately on the sternum.The clavicle is permitted to move up and down, forward and backward, in combination, and in rotation (Arnheim, 1993).
The sternoclavicular joint is extremely weak because of its bony arrangement.Because of this lack of bony stability, it relies on a dense set of ligaments for most of its stability.The main ligaments are the anterior sternoclavicular, which prevents upward displacement of the clavicle; the posterior sternoclavicular, which also prevents upward displace

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