Ecology is the study of living things interacting with its environment, other species,
and its own kind. It's a study of all external condition and factors, both biotic ( living ) and
a-biotic ( nonliving ), that affect an organism. To carry out this study, scientists observe
different ecosystems: forests, deserts, grasslands, oceans, or any kind of interaction
between organisms and their surroundings, or with each other, which are called ecosystem
There are four components within an ecosystem. The a-biotic component, which
determines the types of organisms found there, the producers, the consumers, and the
decomposers. These components cause continual change within the system; the exchange
of materials between the living and nonliving. All organisms living within an ecosystem are
dependent on other living and nonliving organisms for survival and continued growth.
Two basic kinds of processes must occur in an ecosystem: a cycling of chemical
elements and a flow of energy. The flow of energy is from the external environment
through a series of organisms and back to the external environment. To preserve the
system, we must try to conserve the specie or manage the natural resources so that they
The ocean is the great body of water that surrounds each continent. Covering more
than 70 percent of the earth's surface, it contains 97 percent of all the water on the earth
and is recognized as the earth's greatest single unifying system.
Studies say that the sea was formed due in part of the continental drift. This theory
states that the continents were once a single great mass of land surrounded with one body
of ocean. The mass broke off into separate continents, slowly drifting apart. That explains
why these continents can perfectly fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. The continental drift
theory was questioned, and later scientist formed a new theory called sea-floor spreading,

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