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The Human Genome Progect

Begun in 1990, the U.S. Human Genome Project is a 13-year effort coordinated by the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health. The project originally was planned to last 15 years, but effective resource and technological advances have accelerated the expected completion date to 2003. Project goals are to; identify all the (approx) 30,000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, store this information in databases, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to the private sector, and address the ethical, legal and social issues that may arise from the project.
In June 2000, scientists announced biology's most stunning achievement:the generation of a working draft sequence or the entire human genome.In addition to serving as a scaffold for the finished version, the draft provides a road map to an estimated 90% of genes on every chromosome and already has enabled gene hunters to pinpoint genes associated with more than 30 disorders.One insight already gleaned from the sequence is that, even on the molecular level, we are more that the sum of our 35,000 or so genes.
The human genome contains 3164.7 million chemical nucleotide bases (A, T, C and G).The average gene consists of 3000 bases, but sizes vary greatly, with the largest known human gene being dystrophin at 2.4 million bases.Almost all nucleotide bases are exactly the same in all people.However, the functions are still unknown for over 50% of discovered genes.From the research done in the human genome project we now know how genes are arranged, the human genome's gene-dense "urban centers" are predominantly composed of the DNA building blocks G and C.In contrast, the gene-poor “deserts” are rich in the DNA building blocks A and T. GC- and AT-rich regions usually can be seen through a microscope as light and dark bands on chromosomes.Genes …

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