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The Cattle

The cattle are domesticatedherbivorous mammals that constitute the genus Bos, of the family Bovidae.The cattle are of great importance to humans because of the milk, meat, leather, gelatin, glue, hides and other items of trading they produce.Cattle today are divided into two species: B. indicus, which originated in India and is characterized by a hump at the withers, and B. taurus, which originated in Europe and includes most recent breeds of dairy and beef cattle.The common characteristics of cattle can be provided through classification.They belong to the order Artiodactyla (even-toed, hoofed mammals) and the suborder Ruminantia (decreased number of teeth, with the upper incisors missing and a four-compartmented stomachs).Like others of the family Bovidae, they have paired, hollow, unbranched horns that do not shed.Other Bovidae that are so closely related to true cattle that they can still interbreed include the anoa, bison, gaur, Indian and African buffalo, and yak.
The wild cattle, B. primigenius, of Europe werefirst domesticated in southeastern Europe about 8500 years ago, which European cattle descended from.The zebu, or Brahman, cattle, B. indicus, were domesticated in southern Asia about the same time.Early records show that cattle were used for sacrifice, draft, milk, meat, and sport.Modern breeds of cattle were formed during the mid-1800s, and most modern breeds were formed in the latter half of that century.The definition of a breed is used to indicate animals that posses distinctive identity in color, size, conformation, and function.Cattle with similar characteristics, however, were present in these areas even before the idea of breeds became dominant.Today about 274 important recognized breeds exist, and new breeds continue to evolve (Encyclopedia Britannica).
The male cattle isfirst a bull calf and if left intact becomes a bull.If the bull is fixed he becomes a steer and in about…

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