Review of Plant Defense Mechanisms

This 10-page paper discusses about plant defense mechanisms. It consists of an abstract, introduction, mechanisms of defense against insects and pathogens, disease resistance genes, biotechnologies, case studies and future research and practical applications.
An imperiled plant is somewhat like a person. It has to depend on the defense mechanisms, both structural and metabolic to prevent harmful effects of the pathogens. It includes preexisting defense structures surface waxes, structure of epidermal cell walls, position of stomata and lenticles, thick cell walls, leaf hairs, defense structures formed in response to infection by the pathogen, histological defense structures, metabolic (biochemical) defense preexisting biochemical defense, metabolic defense induced by the attacking pathogen, defense through the hypersensitive reaction, defense through increased levels of phenolic compounds, “common” phenolics etc. Plants also activate a specific set of defense genes in response to assault. Recent technologies have enabled us to have plants with "useful genes" only, thus providing better crops in larger number. Unlike traditional plant breeding, which involves the crossing of hundreds or thousands of genes, plant biotechnology allows for the transfer of only one or a few desirable genes. This more precise science allows plant breeders to develop crops with specific beneficial traits and without undesirable traits. Many of these beneficial traits in new plant varieties fight plant pests — insects, disease and weeds — that can be devastating to crops. Others provide quality improvements, such as tastier fruits and vegetables; processing advantages, such as tomatoes with higher solids content; and nutrition enhancements, such as oil seeds that produce oils with lower saturated fat content.
An imperiled plant is somewhat like a person. It, too, relies on built-in safety mechanisms to ensure its well-being. While it can’t exa…

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