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Radioisotopes

This research paper was written to discuss the different uses of radioisotopes that have been discovered so far hopefully more uses will be found in the future.
RADIOACTIVITY is a special attribute recognized more by its outward effect rather than its cause. That effect is the spontaneous and irrepressible emission of radiation. Inside an atom is made up of electrons orbiting around a central core called the nucleus. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons.
Atomic nuclei with the same number of protons, but with differing numbers of neutrons, are called ISOTOPES.
There are a few chemical elements in the Periodic Table with isotopes in which the arrangement of protons and neutrons is less than ideal. Because of this, these elements exhibit a degree of nuclear instability, which manifests itself as RADIOACTIVITY.
Isotopes, which spontaneously emit radiation, are called RADIOISOTOPES.
A radioisotope can lose energy by emitting three different types of radiation:
1. Made up of two protons and two neutrons (the same as the nucleus of a Helium atom).
2. Have a mass number of 4 and an atomic number of 2.
1. Electrons that are emitted from the nucleus of a radioisotope.
2. Have almost no mass (the same as an electron).
1. Is high-energy (short wavelength high frequency) electromagnetic radiation.
In medicine radiation is painless and safe. It is also cost effective Patient has to be given a dose of radiation
Can be man-made or natural Hard to dispose of
In NUCLEAR MEDICINE a radioisotope is administered to a patient either to aid the diagnosis of disease or for the treatment of disease.
The radioisotopes used in DIAGNOSTIC nuclear medicine are selected on the basis of their ability to provide useful clinical information while exposing the patient to only minimal radiation.
For example the radioisotope should –
• Possess a short half-life (hours) which is commensurate with the duration of the i…

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