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Motivation

Motivation explains why people behave as they do. Some scientists view motivation as the factor that determines behaviour, as expressed in the phrase "All behaviour is motivated".(World Book, 1986, p.721). Other scientists focus on two certain aspects of motivated behaviour, excitement or exhilaration of behaviour, that is motivation arouses an organism and causes it to act, and the direction of behaviour, which is lead by habits, skills, abilities and structural features. (World Book, 1986).
This essay aims to describe the four theories of motivation, Instinct theory, Sociobiology, Drive-Reduction theory and Incentive theory. I will be relating each theory to George's behaviour and whether they do or do not apply to George's behaviour.
Instinct is behaviour that is inherited rather than learned. Instinct is an inborn tendency/biological force that dominates behaviour. (Weiten, 1995). William McDougall (1908) viewed instincts as unlearned, universal in expression and universal in a species. (Weiten, 1995). John Bowlby (1969) views instinct with regards to baby's attachment to their parents or caregivers, as in-built. His reason for this development is that babies stay close to their parents because they are provided with protection. Human instincts are more flexible and more open to learning experiences than those of other species. Just like the imprinting of baby geese, so too do human babies attach to his/her parents after many hours of interaction. [Wortman, C. , Loftus, E. and Weaver, C. (1999)].
An example of instinctual behaviour is that all ants build anthills in the same way, even when they are not raised together, then the anthill building behaviour is instinctual and not a learned response.(Weiten, 1995). Sex in humans is also instinctual. We are not born with the desire to engage in sexual activities but as we reach puberty, there is a need for sexual stimulation. Even though we might not know…

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