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Lead Acetate in Hair Dyes

The title of my project is A Quantitative Analysis of Lead Acetate in Progressive Hair Dyes. Hair dyes are separated into 3 basic categories: permanent, semi-permanent, and temporary. Temporary dyes can be washed out instantly. As of now, permanent hair dyes are the most popular. They are sub-divided into oxidation hair dyes and progressive hair dyes.
The active ingredient for progressive hair dye products is lead acetate. In the U.S, the current regulation says that lead acetate can be used as color additive for hair coloring as long as the concentration is less than 0.6%. The most noticeable difference between oxidation and progressive hair dyes is that progressive dyes are intended to give a more gradual change in hair color
Hair dyes work more like paint by covering hair strands with chemical colors or by mixing with the melanin fragments without altering them. In these metallic dyes, it acts as a mordant. As the solution is rubbed on the hair, it penetrates each strand and the Pb2+ ions react with sulfur atoms in the proteins to form black lead (II) sulfide (PbS), which are dark pigments.
Lead acetate acts as a carcinogen, and if large amounts or continuous amounts are inhaled, can be hazardous. It is toxic by inhalation or ingestion and the effects are cumulative. Lead damages the nervous, circulatory, reproductive, and nervous systems and this particular form of lead can penetrate the skin and damage the kidneys. Children are the most vulnerable to lead poisoning. There are no childproof caps on the bottles and if it is spilled, unintentional exposure may follow. For example, individuals who lick their fingers or eat after their hands after contamination would ingest the lead acetate. Lead is mainly a threat to young children because they can suffer brain damage and other problems after ingesting even small amounts. However, the FDA allows these dyes to be made with lead acetate because studies found it un…

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