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How does a nation

A nation is commonly known as a group of people whose common identity creates a psychological bond and a political community. Their political identity usually comprises such characteristics as a common language, culture, ethnicity, and history. What is it that shapes the nation's political institutions? Is it the culture or the history? Answer to this last question is critical because we live in a time of reshaping such nations like Iraq and Afghanistan. It would be important for these nations, which are changing their political institutions to know what they should base their system and institutions on other than democracy alone.
Indeed, the culture of a nation is the character of that nation. Nevertheless, in terms of politics the facts show that when a nation analyzes her history and draws a conclusion about what was done wrong in the past can be more beneficial for the nation to build institutions by only relying on their cultural teachings and practices. So, how does a nation's history shape its political institutions? In order to answer this question, there must be model countries to be observed and analyzed. In this case, they will be Republic of Italy and Republic of Turkey. One should also need historical backgrounds as well as cultural points, which will be mentioned in details later in the paper.
Roman Empire would not be what it was without knowing the history of the ancient Greeks. Byzantine would not have existed if it were not for the ancient Greeks and later the Romans. As observing and improving the earlier civilizations history, Europe lived through Attila the Hun and survived from the brutal Mongol hordes of Genghis Khan (1). When Arabs invaded the Spanish Peninsula in 711 (2), the West knew they were dealing with a more advanced civilization; therefore, they resisted but with the curiosity to learn out of their invaders. They experienced this virtue in the past when they saw the so-called barbarians th…

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