Geology of the earth

Geologists have looked at many different ways of trying to understand the internal structure of our earth, but each piece of evidence on their own is questionable. It is when geologists take all the evidence they have uncovered and put it all together that they find all the pieces of evidence relate to each other and overlap. So, even though we cannot dig deep enough to physically witness the inside of our earth, geologists have been able to provide, with evidence, what the internal structure of the earth compromises of.
The Earth formed from the solar nebular (gas and dust cloud) a certain distance from the sun. The solar wind, the radiation from the sun, carried different elements, different distances from the sun, i.e. light elements like H and He get carried a long distance away, where they form the gas giants such as Jupiter etc. Heavy elements like Fe, Ni, Mg, Ca and Si didn't get blown as far away and therefore the inner planets are mostly rocky material made up of Fe, Ni, Ca and Si oxides.
Continuing on from the above point, geologists can also look at the differentiation of materials in the earth. The starting chemistry of Fe, Ni, Ca and Si has been strongly affected by other processes. Firstly, gravity has pulled the dense Fe and Ni towards the centre of the earth, and consequently given us the core. Secondly, the constant melting and crystallisation of volcanic rocks near the centre of the earth has altered the chemistry of the outer earth and helped it divide into layers, in this case, the oceanic and continental crust.
Thefirst piece of evidence geologists could look at in order to help gain a good understanding of the earths internal structure is the fact that there is a magnetic field around the earth. From this, geologists concluded that the internal structure must contain iron, as it is iron which provides magnetism.

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