Foundations of Phsychology

Psychology research and studies have come a long way in learning more how the human brain affects the way we think, learn, and behave throughout the stages of life. Psychologyfirst sparked a huge interest for further experiments and research when people were unable to recall memories that were tied to the response rendered following severe head trauma. According to (Kowalski & Westen, 2011) “Humans are complex creatures whose psychological experience lies at the intersection of biology and culture." In order to fully understand the brain and what makes people think, act, and behave in certain ways, we must learn and understand the schools of thought, the four perspectives, and who the major theorists were in each.
Schools of Thought (Structuralism and Functionalism)
William Wundt known as the "father of psychology" believed that there was more to psychology than just experiments, but rather a person's religion and language were also essential to understanding mental processes. He used objects which were presented to his observers to record their thoughts, sensations, and feelings and combined them together for a more meaningful perception on what manipulated those responses.
Structuralism was introduced by a student of William Wundt who was known as Edward Tichener. He was most interested in the structural makeup of the conscious and unlike Wundt he believed that psychology should be studied only by experiments. Eventually, sensations and feelings were named as unscientific because this method was immeasurable. Back in the day, structuralism was considered the most powerful schools of thought.
The second school of thought is functionalism, focused mainly on helping people to cope and adapt to their surroundings. William James a founder of functionalism believed that the study of psychology included many sources other than experiments, but rather thru the use of animals, children, and those con

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