Federal and State Court Structures and Jurisdiction

The federal courts and state courts differ in the structure, jurisdiction, and types of cases brought into the court. The basis of the Constitutional Law from an official document delineates powers for the federal law and state law that define the Federal Judicial System which derived from the U.S. Constitution, while the State Constitutional Law originated from the individual state Constitutions. The federal courts, the guardians of the Constitution, protect the rights and liberties of the Constitution. The federal courts interpret the law and apply the law to resolve disputes (U.S. Courts, 2002). Federal authority covers laws linked to patents, labor issues, pensions, and profit sharing. The state authority covers business association, contracts and trade secrets. Concurrent authority manages tax law, security law, and employment law (American Legal System, 2004).
The Federal Judicial System consists of the United States Supreme Courts, Court of Appeals, District Courts, and Bankruptcy Courts. The federal judges once appointed remain there for life, except when congress observes treasons, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors and has the judge removed from office through impeachment. The Supreme Court comprised of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices listen to a limited amount of cases the court has been asked to decide. The Court of Appeals consists of ninety-four judicial districts structured into twelve regional districts and each regional district maintains a Court of Appeals. The District Courts and decisions of federal administration agencies allocate appeal cases to a Court of Appeals located in the same circuit. Furthermore, the Court of Appeals have nationwide jurisdiction for the federal circuit in specialized cases that involve litigations determined in the Court of International Trade, Court of Federal Claims, and patent laws. The District Courts and Trail Courts have jurisdicti…

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