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enzymes

There are over 2000 known enzymes each involved with one specific chemical reaction. Enzymes are catalysts used in aiding many cellular processes. The majority of enzymes are proteins. There have been some ribonucleoprotein enzymes discovered. Their catalytic activity occurs in the RNA part rather than the protien part of the cell. Enzymes allow many chemical reactions to occur within the homeostasis constraints of a living system. As mentioned before, enzymes function as organic catalysts, and catalyst are chemicals involved in, but not changed by, a chemical reaction. Most enzymes function by lowering the activation energy of reactions. Bringing the reactants closer together allows the chemical bonds to possibly be weakened allowing reactions to proceed at a much faster rate than would be seen without the catalyst. An example would be how carbonic anhydrase causes the chemicals it reacts with to be performed 107 times faster than without the presence of the enzyme. This enzyme speeds up the transfer rate of carbon dioxide from cells to the blood.
Something special about enzymes is that they are substrate specific. The enzyme and the substrate that it reacts with fit like a puzzle piece or lock and key. Each enzyme can only bond and function with the substrate designed for it. An example would be that peptidase, which breaks peptide bonds in proteins, will not work on starch, which is broken down by human produced amylase in the mouth. The location at which the enzyme attaches to the substrate is called the active site.
There are several different factors that play a role in how affective enzymes are in their reactions. One factor that they are strongly affected by is changes in pH and temperature. Every enzyme has its certain pH and temperature that it is designed to work at with full capacity. The value of the enzyme will start decreasing at values above and below that certain point. Hydrogen bonds are easily disrupted by in…

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