Down syndrome is caused by a third, or extra, copy of this chromosome.It is the smallest of the 24 human chromosomes and contains about 225 genes. There are descriptive characteristics to down syndrome such as mental retardation, distinctive eyes, shortened life span, thick tongue, abnormal dermatoglyphics (the lines forming a skin pattern on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet). Low resistance to infection. Possible derangement of internal organs. The causes to this can be having three copies of one chromosome instead of two copies, having an extra chromosome, an error in cell division where the chromosomes fail to disjoin and both pass to the same daughter cell, when the location of specific chromosome material moves to another chromosome, or because the chance ofan error is cell division where the chromosomes fail to disjoin increases as the mothers age increases. There are no known cures although there are other things to help someone with down syndrome such as providing protective supervision , watching over or safeguarding, special training, surgery to correct internal derangements, and antibiotics to help fight infections. You can detect down syndrome by amniocentesis (Before birth diagnosis method using cells in the amniotic fluid to determine the number and kind of chromosomes of the fetus and, when indicated, perform biochemical studies.). Down syndrome can be prevented by processes such as a karyotype examination ( a picture of the 46 chromosomes, lined up into 23 pairs examined.). You can study the descendants of one individual or karyotype in young mothers of down syndrome children for translocation involvement. Getting informed about down syndrome can also prevent it. If at last resort an extra chromosome is detected an abortion might be a decision needed to be made.
Sickle Cell Anemia
Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder characterized primarily by chronic anemia and p…