– culture conceptfirst clear definition developed by British anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor
– examples of species of animals that lead a social existence without culture: ants, bees
therefore, society can exist without culture, but culture cannot exist without society
– no member of a society has exact version of his/her culture as another
– gender: the meanings cultures assign to the biological differences of the sexes
-therefore, one's sexual identity or gender is culturally constructed
-gender differences are as old as human culture- about 2.5 mill. yrs.
-"" arose from biological differences
– relationships between food foragers are open although both sexes usually do not carry
– subculture: a distinctive set of standards & behavior patterns that a group within a larger society operates by
– example of subculture: Amish (who rely on horse for transportation as well as agriculture & have their own set of ideas dissimilar as well as similar to the society)
– old-order Amish originated in Austria and Moravia during Reformation- now mainly populate Ohio, Indiana & Pennsylvania
– pluralistic societies: societies that have a diversity of cultural patterns

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