Changing the Voting Structure

As a minority in the United States, Black people start off from a disadvantaged position from birth. Racism, prejudice, and systematic manipulation of economic, social, and educational structures in the United States lead to securing the disadvantaged position that black people maintain. The role and impact of majority rule, single member districts, and Black representation will analyzed in its effects on Black Americans' in a watered down Democracy. In contrast solutions such as interest representation, cumulative voting and super majority rules will be discussed and analyzed to interpret what impact they could have on the current system if any.
Majority rule is defined as “the proposition that 51% of the people should be able to get whatever they want” (Guinier xvi). Guinier points out several problems with majority rule, which include: a disproportionate distribution of power, voter dilution, and racial polarization within the legislature. These all serve to point out the fact that majority rule is not a just form of rule. Guinier hypothesizes that in order for a rule to be fair, “it must comport with the stability, accountability, and reciprocity assumptions.” In light of that, Guinier says, “A system in which a permanent and homogeneous majority consistently exercises disproportionate power is neither stable, accountable, nor reciprocal.” Examples of such unjust majority rule would be how certain cities are drawn into districts in order to maximize legislative power. Guinier points out a situation that includes 1000 voters within a ten-seat jurisdiction. Within that jurisdiction the legislature passes laws by a simple majority of six votes. If a small minority of like-minded people spread across the 10 seats ban together, they can win a majority in the legislature without having a majority of voters in the popular vote. Is it fair that the minority can rule out the wishes of the majority through trite manipulation of a sys…

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