ung Pioneers and the China-Russia Friendship were set up all over China. Because the Communist Party ran these groups, it was easy for them to use the people for its own purposes such as mass rallies. An incredible example of this was when every Chinese citizen was asked to kill 10 flies a day throughout the 1960’s. With a population of 600 million, flies became virtually extinct. In some areas. Another example of this was when cities were being cleaned up. In Shanghai, there was a campaign against rats and each week, every family had to produce one rat’s tail.
Another change that affected the Chinese people was the introduction of communes. This reorganised their lives. Families were split up into work teams where they shared everything. Children were sent to schools and nurseries, old people and the infirm were moved into ‘houses of happiness’ so that their families did not have to look after them and could work. Communal eating halls were also set up so that people did not waste time cooking. Communes were units of local government, with a committee made up of peasants. Party members and soldiers ran schools, clinics, nurseries, eating halls, entertainment and other public services. These changes meant that the Party controlled people’s lives and they spent less time with their families and more time working, resulting in exhaustion and illness.
From 1962 to 1966, the Communist Party argued as to which road to take. The moderates wanted peasants working harder, to have bigger plots of land and to get paid according to how much work they did.
Mao Zedong was opposed to these policies. He thought that they were too ‘capitalist’. In 1962, the Socialist Education Movement was launched, aiming to get people back into Communism. The ‘four clean-ups campaign’ to get rid of corruption and bad Party leadership was also introduced, to discourage people who showed signs of ‘capitalist’ behaviour. These were also important political cha…

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