Bolivia is located in the west-central part of South America and is the fifth largest country of the continent having an area about twice the size of Spain. Bolivia is landlocked bordering five countries: Brazil on the northeast, Paraguay to the southeast, Argentina on the south, and Chile and Peru on the west. The main physical feature of Bolivia is the Andes Mountains, which define the country’s three geographic zones. First is the Altiplano, or plateau region, which lies between the Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Real. On the northern end of the Altiplano lies the Lake Titicaca, the highest navigable body of water in the world. Secondly are the Yungas that form a transition zone between the peaks of the Andes and the Amazonian forest. Lastly are the Lowlands that make up over two-thirds of the national territory; north and east of the Andes. Most of Bolivia’s important rivers are found in the northern lowlands all that eventually flow into the Amazon. The area of modern Bolivia was controlled by Spanish conquest in 1525. The territory of Bolivia, a part of the ancient empire of the Incas, was conquered in 1538 by the Spanish conquistador Hernando Pizarro. As Spanish royal authority weakened during the Napoleonic wars, judgment against colonial rule grew. Between 1808 and 1810, the Wars of Independence took place in Upper Peru which constituted efforts to achieve independence. The revolt on May 25, 1809 was one of thefirst in Latin America. On July 16, 1809, Upper Peru proclaimed itself an independent state. The Battle of Ayacucho in 1824 was the final battle that effectively ended Spanish rule in Upper Peru. On August 6, 1825, Bolivia achieved independence from Spain after a struggle led by Simon Bolivar and Antonio José de Sucre. To satisfy Bolivar’s reservations about the independence of Upper Peru, the new nation was named after him. Five days after Bolivia declared its independence from Spain, on August 11 the…

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