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BIO OUTLINE

A. Life creates order out of disorder through a never-ending series of chemical reactions
B. This is Metabolism and the ability to Metabolize
C. Most of the chemical reactions required by the cell would not occur at physiological conditions
D. Control of these reactions is achieved by specialized protein, ENZYMES.
1. Define Energy – ability to do work
2. Define Work – the ability to change the way matter is arranged
4. Define Potential energy – energy of position
5. FIRST LAW of THERMODYNAMICS –Energy can be transferred or transformed by
6. Explain transferred or transformed –Different kinds of energy
b. Chemical (e.g. gasoline, carbohydrates, fats)
7. SECOND LAW of THERMODYNAMICS – In any energy transformation or transfer some energy is lost
to the surrounding environment as heat.
b. 2nd Law says – ENTROPY IS INCREASING
c. ADD HEAT LOSS TO ENERGY DIAGRAM ABOVE.
1. Free energy – the portion of a systems energy that can perform work given constant T throughout
2. Total free energy of a system (G) is define by this equation G = H – TS
a. H = total energy of system = ENTHALPY
b. T = absolute temp in K (KELVINS) (° C + 273)
d. Note that T increases value of S since as Heat increases, molecular motion increases, and
a. Definition – occur w/o outside help(energy) – energy of system is sufficient to carry out
b. Is not concerned with rate or time, so spontaneous processes will not necessarily occur
4. Determining when a system can undergo spontaneous change
b. The change in Free Energy is negative for spontaneous systems .
G = Gfinal state – Ginitial state or .DG = DH – TDS
A.All reactions require an input of energy to get them started
1. ENERGY OF ACTIVATION or ACTIVATION ENERGY
a. Define Activation Energy with overhead
b. For some reactions the activation energy can be provided by the reacting molecules themselves.
c. For others, the activation is very high since…

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