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Bacteria

Bacteria have been around for about 3.5 billion years. Like all cells, bacteria contain DNA, but the DNA in bacteria is different then other organisms, it's arranged in a single circular chromosome while most cells have several rod shaped chromosomes. Some bacteria also have flagella. This makes the bacteria move by beating in a propeller- motion. Bacteria can be classified in many different ways. There are also bacteria that need oxygen called aerobic bacteria and bacteria that don't need oxygen called anaerobic bacteria. Different bacteria contain different components, While some contain endospores or pili others may contain starch granules or ribosomes and enzymes. Bacteria come in three basic shapes, rod shaped bacteria, which are called bacilli, round shaped bacteria, which are called cocci, and spiral shaped bacteria called spiriochetes. The possibilities are endless, as are the different types of bacteria. Scientists have identified about 30,000 species of bacteria but there must be so many more. Not only this but bacteria can actually fight the diseases they cause. Among with vaccinations bacteria can also create antibiotics that kill the disease after it enters your body.
Bacteria reproduce by the means of binary fission. In this process the single chromosome is doubled, the bacteria divides into two cells and each cell receives one chromosome. You end up with two new, identical bacteria cells. In transformation, bacteria take up fragments of DNA released into the soil or water from decomposing bacteria. Transduction involves the transfer of DNA between bacteria cells by a bacteriophage. Out of the 30,000 bacteria species discovered, only a few hundred cause diseases yet hundreds of millions have died from bacteria related sickness. Other diseases caused by bacteria include tuberculosis, tetanus, cholera and Lyme disease.

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