Artificial Intelligence

A.I. but it is an area in computer science that artificial systems are capable of human-like problem solving or skilled responding.It is a major role in cognitive research and in lives.
Brief History of Artifical Intelligence:
The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligence includes
•games playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers
•expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)
•natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languages
•neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains
•robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuli
AI is divided into 6 main categories:
• knowledge representation and reasoning
• planning and problem solving
 "Knowledge representation and reasoning" are considered to be the core problems in AI This problem has 3 main approaches:
1. logical approach-where conclusions are based on "if-then" rules
2. probabilistic approach-knowledge is represented as a numerical probability and reasoning will involve computing the probability of an alternative conclusion
3. neural network approach-knowledge is represented as a network of interconnected units that perform certain tasks by exchanging information.(This approach mimics a neurons behavior-the cells in the brain process information)
–2000 Artificial Intelligence. In the New Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropedia Volume 1.Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica

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