After the Middle Ages, Europe entered a stage of monarchy.The birth of the modern European nations occurred under the control of kings, queens, and noblemen.Spain, France and England (most noticeably in Western Europe) and their counterparts, Poland and Russian in Eastern Europe, are three of the finest examples of this trend.However, almost from the beginning, there was an outcry against monarchy.Philosophers claimed it was basically evil because it placed all the reigns of power in the hands of one being.Those on the lower rungs of the society, the Third Estate, suffered greatly.Yet ironically enough, while the great revolutions were led in their name, they were among the most conservative of all people and often backed the old order; therefore, it is that Europe has yet to see a vast social uprising that captures the imagination of the people of a certain geo-political area.
It is out of such an atmosphere that the so-called radical philosophies have been born.Liberalism, democracy, and socialism all began in the period of upheaval following the birth of the new European nations, and today each is solidly practiced all over Europe. From socialism comes the most controversial form of radicalism (at least in America).Socialism itself can be divided into several segments:socialism, Communism, and the least known and most misunderstood, anarchism.Anarchism (the complete and total abolition of government) is not to be confused with anarchy which is a pejorative; anarchism is a description.
Anarchism, like Communism, is a fairly recent movement, both growing up together as offshoots from the founders of scientific socialism.Around the turn of the century, practitioners of both anarchism and Communism fought for the loyalty of the Russian intellectuals (obviously, Lenin and his followers winning).The Spanish, and especially the Italians, were fascinated with the an…

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